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The fact that we can’t predict the future doesn’t mean that we should stop trying to prepare for it. SMEs can be especially vulnerable to the effects of external forces, particularly when they’re starting up. Using scenario analysis, you can explore the effects of different scenarios on your financial modeling. This can help you come up with an effective strategy that achieves your objectives and minimizes your vulnerability.

In this article, you will learn about scenario analysis and how it differs from sensitivity analysis, as well as the types of scenarios usually analyzed. You will also learn how to perform scenario analysis and see an example using Google Sheets.

What is Scenario Analysis?

Scenario analysis is a very useful planning tool in any field, as it allows you to evaluate the effects of changes to key variables by analyzing multiple scenarios. While no tool can predict the future, scenario analysis can help you come up with more resilient or more adaptable strategies.

Depending on the issue you want to focus on, you will need to use different types of specific scenarios. However, it’s usually a good idea to include at least the three described in the next section.

Types of Scenario

The purpose of scenario analysis is to contemplate multiple possibilities. This allows you to try different options to observe how any change to key variables can affect others. Ideally, you will analyze at least three scenarios: base, best, and worst. In all cases, talk to those who are directly involved, and can help you identify key assumptions and decide on values.

Base Scenario

This is often the most reasonable or realistic scenario. The basic assumption is that no extreme or unexpected changes will occur. In other words, the values for the key variables will be what you could reasonably expect following previous behavior.

Best Scenario

In this scenario, the assumption is that the values for key external variables are the best possible ones. If one of your key variables is the price of material X, assume it’s the lowest possible price. However, remember to also consider the possibility of indirect consequences.

Worst Scenario

This scenario contemplates the consequences of the worst possible set of circumstances: i.e., increased costs, production problems, etc. This can help you identify your biggest dependencies and weaknesses.

How To Perform What-If Analysis in Google Sheets

The What-If Analysis is a very important concept in financial modeling. Here’s how to perform a What-If Analysis in Google Sheets.

How To Perform What If Analysis in Google Sheets

How to Perform Scenario Analysis?

Follow the steps below to carry out your own scenario analysis. In the next section, you have an example of how to set it up in Google Sheets.

1. Define the Issue

The first step is to define the issue you wish to analyze. Do you want to study how the addition of a new product or service might affect your company? Maybe you want to study what would happen if the cost of labor or raw materials changed.

You need to be clear about the decisions you want to make based on your analysis of different potential scenarios. Remember to also keep track of any assumptions you are making regarding cause and effect, as you may have to change them.

2. Gather Data

Next, you need to identify the key variables and metrics involved. Remember to keep track of which key variables you will modify for each scenario, such as the cost of raw materials, and which ones you control, like the price per unit. Remember to use metrics that are reliable indicators of what you want to analyze.

3. Create a Scenario Template

Once you have selected the metrics, you need to set up a template for the scenarios. Most of the time, you will be carrying out this analysis using existing financial documents and models. This means you can adapt the document for use as the scenario template, so it’s easy to switch and update values.

4. Set Up Scenarios

Now that you have a template, you can set up each of the scenarios. This will include making assumptions about the values for the key variables in each scenario. Remember to think about less direct effects on other variables.

For example, a shortage of a crucial raw material will also affect competitors: will demand remain steady and justify much higher selling prices? Will demand diminish as customers find alternative products?

5. Evaluate Results

Once you have calculated and evaluated the different scenarios, you can start making decisions. As mentioned, it’s best to evaluate at least three scenarios before making a decision.

The base case should be the most realistic among these, but you also need to see what would happen to your model in extreme situations, whether positive or negative. However, you’re not limited to those three scenarios: you should evaluate as many as you need to.

How to Perform Scenario Analysis in Google Sheets?

As you have seen, scenario analysis requires research and a lot of thinking. In fact, the majority of your time should be spent on thinking; this includes defining the problem, deciding on the metrics and scenario parameters, and interpreting the results of multiple scenarios.

Fortunately, tools like Excel or Google Sheets make this thinking process easier as they allow you to set up templates and automate calculations. You will need to be careful setting up the formulas and cell references initially, and it’s highly recommended to get help from people knowledgeable in spreadsheet software and financial metrics and analyses.

I will use a simplified financial model for this example, but you can use the same method to build more detailed ones.

  1. 1. Gather the required data and set up the formulas. In the screenshot below, you can see that the last three rows are formulas that depend on the values in the first four rows.
Scenario Analysis Complete Guide with Example Current Data
Scenario Analysis: Complete Guide (with Example) - Current Data
  1. 2. Copy the column with the current period data as many times as you need: one per scenario. Below, you can see I have modified the data for ‘units sold’, ‘unit cost’, and ‘fixed cost’ according to the expectations for each scenario.
Scenario Analysis Complete Guide with Example Add Scenarios
Scenario Analysis: Complete Guide (with Example) - Add Scenarios
  1. 3. To see the effects of changes in selling price, simply type it into the corresponding scenario in the cells highlighted in blue below.
Scenario Analysis Complete Guide with Example Adjust Variables
Scenario Analysis: Complete Guide (with Example) - Adjust Variables

Using a tool like Layer, you can easily bring together data from different sources and in different formats. It’s possible to work comfortably with complex models and multiple sources of data. You can set up data flows and schedule updates to ensure your team works with the latest data. Additionally, you will have full control of access to different parts of your data and be able to assign tasks to your team.

Data Analysis in Google Sheets Tips and Examples
Data Analysis in Google Sheets (+ Tips and Examples)

Google Sheets offers plenty of Data Analysis features that we can use to make sense of large data sets. Here’s how to do Data Analysis in Google Sheets.


Scenario Analysis vs. Sensitivity Analysis

Both sensitivity and scenario analysis are popular types of what-if analysis. While scenario analysis evaluates the effects of changing multiple variables in your model, sensitivity analysis focuses on one key variable at a time to see how the model responds.


As you have seen, scenario analysis is a very useful planning tool, regardless of your industry. Common uses in finance include decision-making regarding new products or services, investments, or any changes to the existing business model. However, depending on the issue and the variables involved, it can be a complex and time-consuming process. Fortunately, tools like Layer and Google Sheets help you save valuable time and avoid mistakes.

You now know about scenario analysis in finance and the types of scenarios usually used. Before embarking on a project, it’s a good idea to evaluate different scenarios, covering the spectrum from the best case to the worst case. You also know how to perform scenario analysis and how tools like Google Sheets and Layer can help you automate tedious and error-prone tasks.

Hady ElHady
Hady is Content Lead at Layer.

Hady has a passion for tech, marketing, and spreadsheets. Besides his Computer Science degree, he has vast experience in developing, launching, and scaling content marketing processes at SaaS startups.

Originally published Oct 20 2022, Updated Jun 18 2023

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